European Academic Research ISSN 2286-4822
ISSN-L 2286-4822
Impact Factor: 3.4546 (UIF)
DRJI Value : 5.9 (B+)
Article Details :
Article Name :
Esophageal Carcinoma in Mogadishu, Somalia: A four year retrospective study
Author Name :
Mohamed Abdulkadir Hassan-Kadle, Ahmed Mohamed Moallim Musse
Publisher :
Bridge Center
Article URL :
Abstract :
Background: Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most serious cancers worldwide and the majority carcinoma of the esophagus cases occur in developing world. There is a marked variation in incidence, types, ethnicity, gender and outcome in various regions in the world. Esophageal carcinoma is the eighth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with its rapid development and fatal prognoses in most cases. Most of esophageal carcinoma types are either Squamous cell carcinoma or Adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the main variant in developing countries whereas Adenocarcinoma appears more common in developed countries. Males predominate than females in worldwide. There is no previous study was conducted in Somalia according to the prevalence and incidence of esophageal carcinoma. Therefore the aim of this study was to document the characteristics of esophageal carcinoma with respect to the age and gender distribution and histopathologcial types in Mogadishu, Somalia. The study provides baseline local data for future studies. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients referred from endoscopic unit of surrounding clinics and hospitals with endoscopic diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma between January 2013 and December 2016 to the department of pathology, Liban Clinic in Mogadishu, Somalia. Data were collected and analyzed from patients’ case records included age, gender and histological reports of all histologically confirmed cases of esophageal carcinoma. Results: A total of 1607 patients was admitted and referred to Liban Clinic during January 2013 to December 2016. 129 out of 1607 patients (8%) were diagnosed esophageal carcinoma. In this study was analyzed 127 cases out of 129 patients; Sixty nine out of 127 patients (54.3%) were females predominating males with their ratio male to female was 1:1.2. The commonest age group were fifth and sixth decades while the mean age of both sexes was 57 ± 15.479 (min 15 – max 90) with mean age of female being 58 ±15.441 (min 26 – mix 90) and male age 58 ±15.15.657 (min 15 – mix 84) with their youngest age was 15 and oldest age was 90 years. The most common Histopathological type of esophageal carcinoma in this study was Squamous cell carcinoma with 124 out of 127 (97.6%) (females 55.6%, male 44.3%) and 3 out of 127 (2.4%) were Adenocarcinoma (females 0%, male 100%). The peak incidence of Squamous cell carcinoma was found in the age group 41 -80 years with 98 of 124 (79 %) while the minimum age group was below 40 years with18 of 124 (14.5%) and above 80 years with 8 of 124 (6.4%) for both sexes. The maximum number of patients with adenocaricoma age groups of 41 – 80 years for males. Conclusion: The Esophageal carcinoma in Mogadishu, Somalia had predominance of female gender then the men with ratio (male: female ratio =1:1.2). The most frequent type of esophageal carcinoma is Squamous cell carcinoma and more frequent in females then the men and it is followed by Adenocarcinoma which more frequent in males than the females in this study, so we needed more studies in this disease in terms of prevalence and incidence and to identify the local risk factors and the reason for apparent gander.
Keywords :
Esophageal carcinoma, Histopathological Types, Female, Mogadishu, Somalia.

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